Photo credit: Betty Adler
Brit milah literally means "covenant of circumcision". This covenant is between G-d and the Jewish people. The Torah tells the story of G-d saying to Abraham: "I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your children after you, throughout all generations, as an everlasting covenant, to be your G-d and your children's after you ... This is My covenant which you shall keep ... every male among you shall be circumcised. And you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a sign of a covenant between Me and you." (Genesis XVII, 7-11).
Eight days old is the age at which G-d commanded the Jewish people to circumcise their male children - "he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generation ..." (Genesis XVII, 12). This mitzvah is so extraordinary that it can supersede the 'Laws of Shabbat' that normally prohibit such an operation on Shabbat and holidays. A brit may only take place during daylight hours; the earlier the better since we are eager to fulfill a mitzvah (commandment). The day of birth is counted as the first day, assuming the child is born before sundown. If he is born after sundown the following day is the first day of life.
Only certain circumstances justify the delay of a brit. Above all, a child that is not well may not be circumcised. Another exception is that, if the eighth day falls on Shabbat, but your son was born by cesarean section, the brit is delayed until the next day (Sunday). You should not delay a brit for convenience nor may it take place before the eighth day. If a brit is delayed for any reason, it may not take place on Shabbat or a holiday.
Traditionally, a brit was held in the synagogue to add beauty and sanctity to the mitzvah. Most parents prefer that a brit take place at home. The home is generally a warm, familiar environment. However, the brit may take place anywhere, as long as it is in a well-lit room large enough to accommodate all who are present.
If the eighth day falls on Shabbat or holiday, it is appropriate that the brit take place in a synagogue. In this way, it is appropriate for those attending the brit to travel, as they are doing so to daven (pray). However, all supplies and food must be brought to the synagogue before the start of Shabbat so as not to carry on Shabbat. The brit may either take place immediately following the Torah service, but before the Torah is replaced, or it may take place after the completion of morning services